Most students have trouble discovering important principles on their own, without careful guidance, scaffolding, or materials with well-crafted affordances.
- When designing learning materials, teachers need to provide guides and explicit instruction in the principles that are to be learned.
- Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41, 75-86.