Information is encoded and remembered better when it is delivered in multiple modes (verbal and pictorial), sensory modalities (auditory and visual), or media (computers and lectures) than when delivered in only a singe mode, modality, or medium. Dual codes provide richer and more varied representations that allow more memory retrieval routes. However, the amount of information should not overwhelm the learner because attention is split or cognitive capacities are overloaded.
- Design the learning materials so that information gets delivered in multiple modes, modalities, and media, but do not overwhelm the learner with too much to learn or too much to attend to, two primary causes of cognitive overload.
- Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Moreno, R., & Valdez, A. (2005). Cognitive Load and Learning Effects of Having Students Organize Pictures and Words in Multimedia Environments: The Role of Student Interactivity and Feedback. Educational Technology Research and Development. 53, 35-45.