Students benefit more from repeated testing when they expect a final exam that will include additional information than when they do not expect a final exam. It seems that learners will keep material more accessible in memory when they expect to need it later than when they do not.
- Teachers should create the expectation that there will be a final or comprehensive examination that will be administered at some future date. Learners will use knowledge of future testing to keep information in memory in a way that allows it to be recalled in the future.
- Szupnar, K. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L., III. (in press). Expectation of a final cumulative test enhances long-term retention.