Most students need training in how to self-regulate their own learning and other cognitive processes.
- Provide learners with frequent assessments so they can become aware of what they do not know because it is difficult to assess ones own understanding or learning without an external assessment.
- Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, 1121-34.
- Langendyk, V. (2006). Not knowing that they do not know: Self-assessment accuracy of third-year medical students. Medical Education. 40, 173-179.